Islamic Chronology
Part One: 6th Century (500-599) C.E. to 13th Century (1200-1299) C.E.
6th Century (500-599) C.E.

545: Birth of Abdullah, the Holy Prophet's father.

571: Birth of the Holy Prophet. Year of the Elephant. Invasion of Makkah by Abraha the Viceroy of Yemen, his retreat.

577: The Holy Prophet visits Madina with his mother. Death of his mother.

580: Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of the Holy Prophet.

583: The Holy Prophet's journey to Syria in the company of his uncle Abu Talib. His meeting with the monk Bahira at Bisra who
foretells of his prophethood.

586: The Holy Prophet participates in the war of Fijar.

591: The Holy Prophet becomes an active member of "Hilful Fudul", a league for the relief of the distressed.

594: The Holy Prophet becomes the Manager of the business of Lady Khadija, and leads her trade caravan to Syria and back.

595: The Holy Prophet marries Hadrat Khadija. Seventh century

7th Century (600-699) C.E.

605: The Holy Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.

610: The first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. The Holy Prophet is commissioned as the Messenger of God.

613: Declaration at Mt. Sara inviting the general public to Islam.

614: Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam.

615: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for Abyssinia.

616: Second Hijrah to Abysinnia.

617: Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Holy Prophet by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.

619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadija. Year of sorrow.

620: Journey to Taif. Ascension to the heavens.

621: First pledge at Aqaba.

622: Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib. 623: Nakhla expedition.

624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Madina.

625: Battle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr.

626: Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.

627: Battle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews.

628: Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet addresses letters to various heads of states.

629: The Holy Prophet performs the pilgrimage at Makkah. Expedition to Muta (Romans).

630: Conquest of Makkah. Battles of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif.

631: Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations.

632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah.

632: Death of the Holy Prophet. Election of Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu
Qissa and Abraq. Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar.

633: Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq. Battles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis,
Hirah, Anbar, Ein at tamr, Daumatul Jandal and Firaz.

634: Battles of Basra, Damascus and Ajnadin. Death of Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat Umar Farooq becomes the Caliph. Battles of Namaraq and Saqatia.

635: Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl.

636: Battle of Yermuk. Battle of Qadsiyia. Conquest of Madain.

637: Conquest of Syria. Fall of Jerusalem. Battle of Jalula.

638: Conquest of Jazirah.

639: Conquest of Khuizistan. Advance into Egypt.

640: Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia. Battle of Babylon in Egypt.

641: Battle of Nihawand. Conquest Of Alexandria in Egypt.

642: Battle of Rayy in Persia. Conquest of Egypt. Foundation of Fustat.

643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia).

644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan.Martyrdom of Hadrat Umar. Hadrat Othman becomes the Caliph.

645: Campaigns in Fats.

646: Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor.

647: Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cypress.

648: Campaigns against the Byzantines.

651: Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.

652: Discontentment and disaffection against the rule of Hadrat Othman.

656: Martyrdom of Hadrat Othman. Hadrat Ali becomes the Caliph. Battle of the Camel.

657: Hadrat Ali shifts the capital from Madina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin. Arbitration proceedings at Daumaut ul Jandal.

658: Battle of Nahrawan.

659: Conquest of Egypt by Mu'awiyah.

660: Hadrat Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Mu'awiyah. Mu'awiyah declares himself as the Caliph at Damascus.

661: Martyrdom of Hadrat Ali. Accession of Hadrat Hasan and his abdication. Mu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph.

662: Khawarij revolts.

666: Raid of Sicily.

670: Advance in North Africa. Uqba b Nafe founds the town of Qairowan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul.

672: Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan.

674: The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.

677: Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of Constantinople.

680: Death of Muawiyah. Accession of Yazid. Tragedy of Kerbala and martyrdom of Hadrat Hussain.

682: In North Africa Uqba b Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Qairowan
and withdraw to Burqa.

683: Death of Yazid. Accession of Mu'awiyah II.

684: Abdullah b Zubair declares himself aS the Caliph at'Makkah. Marwan I becomes the Caliph' at Damascus. Battle of Marj

685: Death of Marwan I. Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph at Damascus. Battle of Ain ul Wada.

686: Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa.

687: Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b Zubair. Mukhtar killed.

691: Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik.

692: The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the sole Caliph.

695: Khawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The' Muslims once
again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.

8th Century (700-799) C.E.

700: Campaigns against the Berbers in North Africa.

702: Ashath's rebellion in Iraq, battle of Deir ul Jamira.

705: Death of Abdul Malik. Accession of Walid I as Caliph.

711: Conquest of Spain, Sind and Transoxiana.

712: The Muslims advance in Spain, Sind and Transoxiana.

713: Conquest of Multan.

715: Death of Walid I. Accession of Sulaiman.

716: Invasion of Constantinople.

717: Death of Sulaiman. Accession of Umar b Abdul Aziz.

720: Death of Umar b Abdul Aziz. Accession of Yazid II.

724: Death of Yazid II. Accession of Hisham.

725: The Muslims occupy Nimes in France.

732: The battle of Tours in France.

737: The Muslims meet reverse at Avignon in France.

740: Shia revolt under Zaid b Ali. Berber revolt in North Africa. Battle of the Nobles.

741: Battle of Bagdoura in North Africa.

742: The Muslim rule restored in Qiarowan.

743: Death of Hisham. Accession of Walid II. Shia revolt in Khurasan under Yahya b Zaid.

744: Deposition of Walid I1. Accession of Yazid II1 and his death. Accession of Ibrahim and his overthrow. Battle of Ain al Jurr. Accession of Marwan II.

745: Kufa and Mosul occupied by the Khawarjites.

746: Battle of Rupar Thutha, Kufa and Mosul occupied by Marwan II.

747: Revolt of Abu Muslim in Khurasan.

748: Battle of Rayy.

749: Battles of lsfahan and Nihawand. Capture of Kufa by the Abbasids. As Saffah becomes the Abbasid Caliph at Kufa.

750: Battle of Zab. Fall of Damascus. End of the Umayyads.

751: Conquest of Wasit by the Abbasid. Murder of the Minister Abu Salama.

754: Death of As Saffah. Accession of Mansur as the Caliph.

755: Revolt of Abdullah b Ali. MUrder of Abu Muslim. Sunbadh revolt in Khurasan.

756: Abdul Rahman founds the Umayyad state in Spain.

762: Shia revolt under Muhammad (Nafs uz Zakia) and Ibrahim.

763: Foundation of Baghdad. Defeat of the Abbasids in Spain.

767: Khariji state set up by Ibn Madrar at Sijilmasa. Ustad Sees revolt in Khurasan.

772: Battle of Janbi in North Africa. Rustamid. state set up in Morocco.

775: Death or the Abbasid Caliph Mansur, Accession of Mahdi,

777: Battle of Saragossa in Spain.

785: Death of the Caliph Mahdi. Accession of Hadi.

786: Death of Hadi. Accession of Harun ur Rashid.

788: Idrisid state set up in the Maghrib. Death of Abdul Rahman of Spain, and accession of Hisham.

792: Invasion of South France.

796: Death of Hisham in Spain; accession of al Hakam.

799: Suppression of the revolt of the Khazars. Ninth century.

9th Century (800-899) C.E.

800: The Aghlabid rule is established in North Africa.

803: Downfall of the Barmakids. Execution of Jafar Barmki.

805: Campaigns against the Byzantines. Capture of the islands of Rhodes and Cypress.

809: Death of Harun ur Rashid. Accession of Amin.

814: Civil war between Amin and Mamun. Amin killed and Mamun becomes the Caliph.

815: Shia revolt under Ibn Tuba Tabs.

816: Shia revolt in Makkah; Harsama quells the revolt. In Spain the Umayyads capture the island of Corsica.

817: Harsama killed.

818: The Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Izira, Majorica, and Sardinia.

819: Mamun comes to Baghdad.

820: Tahir establishes the rule of the Tahirids in Khurasan.

822: Death of AI Hakam in Spain; accession of Abdul Rahman. II.

823: Death of Tahir in Khurasan. Accession of Talha and his deposition. Accession of Abdullah b Tahir.

827: Mamun declares the Mutazila creed as the state religion.

833: Death of Mamun. Accession of Mutasim.

836: Mutasim shifts the capital to Samarra. 837 Revolt of the Jats.

838: Revolt of Babek in Azarbaijan suppressed.

839: Revolt of Maziar in Tabaristan. The Muslims occupy South Italy. Capture of the city of Messina in Sicily.

842: Death of Mutasim, accession of Wasiq.

843: Revolts of the Arabs.

847: Death of Wasiq, accession of Mutawakkil.

850: Mutawakkil restores orthodoxy.

849: Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah b Tahir; accession of Tahir II.

852: Death of Abdur Rahman II of Spain;. accession of Muhammad I.

856: Umar b Abdul Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind.

858: Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya.

860: Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana.

861: Murder of the Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil; accession of Muntasir.

862: Muntasir poisoned to death; accession of Mutasin.

864: Zaidi state established in Tabaristan by Hasan b Zaid.

866: Mutasim flies from Samarra, his depostion and accession of Mutaaz.

867: Yaqub b Layth founds the Saffarid rule in Sistan.

868: Ahmad b Tulun founds the Tulunid rule in Egypt.

869: The Abbasid Caliph Mutaaz forced to abdicate, his death and accession of Muhtadi.

870: Turks revolt against Muhtadi, his death and accession of Mutamid.

873: Tahirid rule extinguished.

874: Zanj revolt in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of Nasr.

877: Death of Yaqubb Layth in Sistan, accession of Amr b Layth.

885: Death of Ahmad b Tulun in Egypt, accession of Khamar- wiyiah.

866: Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Munzir. Death of Abdullah b Umar the Habbari ruler of

888: Death of Munzir the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Abbullah.

891: The Qarmatian state established at Bahrain.

892: Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail.

894: The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain.

896: Death of the Tulunid ruler Khamarwiyiah; accession of Abul Asakir Jaish.

897: Assassination of Abul Asakir Jaish; accession of Abu Musa Harun.

898: Qarmatians sack Basra,

10th Century (900-999) C.E.

902: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; death of the Saffarid ruler Amr.

903: Assassination of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Said; accession of Abu Tahir.

905: Abdullah b Hamdan founds the Hamdanid rule in Mosul and Jazira. End of the Tulunid rule in Egypt.

907: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; accession of Muqtadir,

908: End of the Saffarid rule, annexation of their territories by the Samanids.

909: Ubaidullah overthrows the Aghlablds and founds the Fatimid rule in North Africa.

912: Death of the Umayyad Amir Abdullah in Spain, accession of Abdur Rahman III.

913: Assassination of the Samanid ruler Ahmad II, accession of Nasr II.

928: Mardawij b Ziyar founds the Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan.

929: Qarmatians sack Makkah and carry away the Black Stone from the Holy Kaaba. In Spain, Abdur Rahman III declares
himself as the Caliph.

931: Deposition and restoration of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir. Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Tahir; accession of Abu

932: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir; accession of Al Qahir.

934: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph AI Qahir; accession of Ar Radi. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah ; accession of Al Qaim.

935: Assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardawij; accession of Washimgir. Death of Hamdanid ruler Abdullah b Hamdan
accession of Nasir ud Daula.

936: By coup Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir ul Umara.

938: By another coup power at Baghdad is captured by Bajkam.

940: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Ar Radi, accession of Muttaqi.

941: Assassination of Bajkam, capture of power by Kurtakin.

942: Ibn Raiq recaptures power.

943: Al Baeidi captures power. The Abbasid Caliph Muttaqi is forced to seek refuge with the Hamdanids. Sail ud Daula captures power at Baghdad and the Caliph returns to' Baghdad. Power is captured by Tuzun and Sail ud Daula retires' to Mosul. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr II, accession of Nuh.

944: Muttaqi is blinded and deposed, accession of Mustakafi.

945: Death of Tuzun. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra. The Buwayhids capture power. Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph

946: Death of the Fatimid Caliph A1 Qaim. accession of Mansur. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Muhammad b Tughj, accession of
Abul' Qasim Ungur. 951: The Qarnaatiana restore the Black Stone to the Holy Kaaba.

954: Death of the Sasanid ruler Nuh, accession of Abdul Malik.

961: Death of the Samanid ruler Abdul Malik, accession of Manauf. Alptgin founds the rule of the Ghazanavids. Death of the
Umayyad Caliph Abdul Rahman III in Spain; accession of Hakam. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Ungur accession of Abul Hasan Ali.

965: Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Mansur; accession of Hasan Azam. Assassination of the Ikhshid ruler Abul Hasan Ali;
power captured by Malik Kafur.

967: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula, accession of Bakhtiar. Death of the Hamdanid ruler Sail ud Daula.

968: Byzantines occupy Aleppo. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Malik Kafur; accession of Abul Fawaris.

969: The Fatimids conquer Egypt.

972: Buluggin b Ziri founds the rule of the Zirids Algeria.

973: Shia Sunni disturbances in Baghdad; power captured in Baghdad by the Turkish General Subuktgin.

974: Abdication of the Abbasid Caliph AI Muttih; accession of At Taii.

975: Death of the Turk General Subuktgin. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Muizz.

976: The Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula recaptures power with the help of his cousin Azud ud Daula. Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur, accession of Nuh II. In Spain death of the Umayyad Caliph Hakam, accession of Hisham II.

978: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula, power captured by Azud ud Daula. The Hamdanids overthrown by the

979: Subkutgin becomes the Amir of Ghazni.

981: End of the Qarmatian rule at Bahrain.

982: Death of the- Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula; accession of Samsara ud Daula.

984: Death of the Zirid ruler Buluggin, accession of Mansur.

986: The Buwyhid Sultan Samsara ud Daula overthrown by Sharaf ud Daula.

989: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf ud Daula, accession of Baha ud Daula.

991: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph At Taii, accession of AI Qadir.

996: Death of the Zirid ruler Mansur, accession of Nasir ud Daula Badis.

997: Death of the Samanid ruler Nuh II, accession of Mansur II.

998: Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur II, accession of Abdul Malik II. Mahmud becomes the Amir of Ghazni. 999 End of the Samanids.

11th Century (1000-1099) C.E.

1001: Mahmud Ghazanavi defeats the Hindu Shahis.

1004: Mahmud captures Bhatiya.

1005: Mahmud captures Multan and Ghur.

1008: Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy.

1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. accession of Muhammad.

1011: In Spain Muhammad is overthrown by Sulaiman.

1012: In Spain power is captured by Bani Hamud. Death of the Buwayhid Baha ud Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula.

1016: Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis; accession of AI Muizz.

1018: In Spain power is captured by Abdul Rahman IV.

1019: Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud Ghazanavi.

1020: The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is Overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula, Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Hakim, accession of Al Zahir.

1024: In Spain assassination of Abdul Rahman IV, accession of Mustafi.

1025: Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal ud Daula.

1029: In Spain death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III.

1030: Death of Mahmud Ghazanavi.

1031: In Spain deposition of Hisharn III, and end of the Umayyad rule. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qadir, accession of Al

1036: Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Zahir, accession of Mustansir. Tughril Beg is crowned as the king of the Seljuks.

1040: Battle of Dandanqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of Masud the Ghazanavid Sultan, accession of
Muhammad. AI Moravids come to power in North Africa.

1041: The Ghazanavid Sultan Muhammad is overthrown by Maudud.

1044: Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu Kalijar.

1046: Basasiri captures power in Baghdad.

1047: The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and transfer allegiance to-the Abbasids.

1048: Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik ur Rahim.

1050: Yusuf b Tashfin comes to power .in the Maghrib.

1055: Tughril Beg overthrows the Buwayhids.

1057: Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al Qaim and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.

1059: Tughril Beg recaptures power in Baghdad, al Qaim is restored as the Caliph.

1060: Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni. Yusuf b Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital
Ashir and establish their capital at Bougie.

1062: Death of the Zirid ruler AI Muizz, accession of Tamin.

1063: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg; accession of Alp Arsalan.

1071: Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor taken captive by the Seljuks.

1073: Death of Alp Arsalan, accession of Malik Shah.

1077: Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Qaim, accession of AI Muqtadi.

1082: The A1 Moravids conquer Algeria.

1086: Battle of Zallakha. The AI Moravids defeat the Christians in Spain. Death of the Rum Sejuk Sultan Sulaiman, accession of Kilij Arsalan.

1091: The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule.

1092: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, accession of Mahmud.

1094: Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk. Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir.

1095: The first crusade.

1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem.

12th Century (1100-1199) C.E.

1101: Death or the Fatimid Caliph Al Mustaali, accession of Al Aamir.

1105: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Barkiaruk, accession Of Muhammad.

1106: Death of the AI Motavid Yusuf b Tashfin.

1107: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arsalan, succession of Malik Shah.

1108: Death of the Zirid ruler Tamin, accession of Yahya.

1116: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah. accession of Rukn ud Din Masud.

1118: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad; accession of Mahmud II. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustahzir, accession of
Mustarshid. In Spain the Christians capture Saragossa.

1121: Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Aamir, accession of AI Hafiz.

1127: Imad ud Din Zangi establishes the Zangi rule In Mosul.

1128: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Qutb ud Din Muhammad; accession of Atsiz.

1130: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II; accession of Tughril Beg II.

1134: Assassination of the Abbasid Caliph Mustarshid; accession of Al Rashid. Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg II,
accession of Masud.

1135: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph AI Rashid, accession of AI Muktafi.

1144: Imad ud Din Zangi captures Edessa from the Christians, second crusade.

1146: Death of Imad ud Din Zangi, accession of Nur ud Din Zangi.

1147: In the Maghrib AI Moravids overthrown by the Al Mohads under Abul Mumin.

1148: End of the Zirid rule' in North Africa.

1149: Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Hafiz, accession of AI Zafar.

1152: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Masud, accession of Malik Shah II. Hamadid rule extinguished in North Africa.

1153: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I1, accession of Muhammad II.

1154: Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Zafar, accession of AI Faiz.

1156: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Rukn ud Din Masid, accession of Arsalan II.

1159: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad II, accession of Gulaiman.

1160: Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Mukta, accession of Al Mustanjid. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Faiz, accession of Al

1161: Death of the Seljuk Sulaiman, accession of Arsalan Shah.

1163: Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abul Mumin, accession of Abu Yaqub Yusuf.

1170: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustanjid, accession of Al Mustazii.

1171: Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Azzid. End of the Fatimids. Salah ud Din founds the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt.

1172: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Arsalan, accession of Sultan Shah.

1173: The Khawarzam Shah Sultan Shah is overthrown by Tukush Shah.

1174: Salah ud Din annexes Syria.

1175: The Ghurids defeat the Guzz Turks and occupy Ghazni.

1176: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Arsalan Shah, accession of Tughril Beg III.

1179: Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Mustazaii, accession of AI Nasir. Shahab ud Din Ghuri captures Peshawar.

1185: Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abu Yaqub Yusuf, accession of Abu Yusuf Yaqub.

1186: The Ghurids overthrow the Ghaznvaids in the Punjab.

1187: Salah ud Din wrests Jerusalem from the Christians, third crusade.

1191: Battle of Tarain between the Rajputs and the Ghurids.

1193: Death of Salah ud Din; accession of Al Aziz. Second battleof Tarain.

1194: Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims. End of the Seljuk rule.

1199: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Tukush Shah; accession of Ala ud Din. Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub;
accession of Muhammad Nasir. Conquest of Northern India and Bengal by the Ghurids.

13th Century (1200-1299) C.E.

1202: Death of the Ghurid Sultan Ghias ud Din; accession of Mahmud.

1204: Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks.

1206: Death of Shahab ud Din Ghuri. Qutb ud Din Aibik crowned king in Lahore.

1210: Assassination of the Ghurid Sultan MahmUd, accession of Sam. Death of Qutb ud Din Aibak, accession of Aram Shah in India.

1211: End of the Ghurid rule, their territories annexed by the Khawarzam Shahs. In India Aram Shah overthrown by Iltutmish.

1212: Battle of AI Uqab in Spain, end of the AI Mohad rule in Spain. The AI Mohads suffer defeat by the Christians in Spain at the Al-Uqba. The AI Mohad Sultan An Nasir escapes to Morocco where he dies soon after. Accession of his son Yusuf who takes over title of AI Mustansir.

1214: In North Africa death of the AI Mohad ruler Al Nasir, accession of Al Mustansir. The Banu Marin under their leader
Abdul Haq occupy the north eastern part of Morocco.

1216: The Banu Marin under their leader Abdul Haq occupy north eastern part of Morocco. The AI Mohads suffer defeat by the Marinids at the battle of Nakur. The Banu Marin defeat the AI Mobads at the battle of Nakur.

1217: The Marinids suffer defeat in the battle fought on the banks of the Sibu river. Abdul Haq is killed and the Marinids evacuate
Morocco. In the battle of Sibu the Marinids suffer defeat; their leader Abdul Haq is killed and they evacuate Morocco.

1218: Death of the Ayyubid ruler AI Adil, accession of AI Kamil. The Marinids return to Morocco under their leader Othman and
occupy Fez.

1220: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Ala ud Din, accession of Jalal ud Din Mangbarni.

1222: Death of the Zangi ruler Nasir ud Din Mahmud, power captured by Badr ud Din Lulu.

1223: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Muntasir, accession of Abdul Wahid. Death of Yusuf AI Mustansir, accession of Abdul
Wahid in Morocco.. In Spain a brother of Yusuf declares his independence and assumes the title of AI Adil. In Spain Abu
Muhammad overthrows AI Adil. AI Adil escapes to Morocco and overthrows Abdul Wahid.

1224: Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abdul Wahid, accession of Abdullah Adil.

1225: Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Nasir, accession of AI Mustansir.

1227: Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abdullah Adil, accession of Mustasim. Assassination of Al Adil, accession of his son Yahya
who assumes the throne under the name of Al Mustasim.

1229: Death of the AI Mohad ruler Mustasim, accession of Idris. The Ayyubid AI Kamil restores Jerusalem to the Christians.
Abu Muhammad dies in Spain and is succeeded by Al Mamun. AI Mamun invades Morocco with Christian help. Yahya is
defeated and power is captured by Al Mamun. He denies the Mahdiship of Ibn Tumarat.

1230: End of the Khawarzam Shah rule.

1232: Death of the AI Mohad ruler Idris, accession, of Abdul Wahid II. Assassination of Al Mamun; accession of his son

1234: Death of the Ayyubid ruler AI Kamil, accession of AI Adil.

1236: Death of Delhi Sultan Iltutmish. Accession of Rukn ud Din Feroz Shah.

1237: Accession of Razia Sultana as Delhi Sultan.

1240: Death of Ar-Rashid; accession of his son Abu Said.

1241: Death of Razia Sultana, accession of Bahram Shah.

1242: Death of Bahram Shah, accession of Ala ud Din Masud Shah as Delhi Sultan. Death of the AI Mohad rules Abdul Wahid,
accession of Abu Hasan. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustansir, accession of Mustasim.

1243: Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abdul Walid II, accession of

1244: The Al Mohads defeat the Marinids at the battle of Abu Bayash. The Marinids evacuate Morocco.

1245: The Muslims reconquer Jerusalem.

1246: Death of the Delhi Sultan Ala ud Din Masud Shah, accession of Nasir ud Din Mahmud Shah.

1248: Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abul Hasan, accession of Omar Murtaza. Abu Said attacks Tlemsen, but is ambushed and
killed; accession of his son Murtada.

1250: The Marinids return to Morocco, and occupy a greatar part thereof.

1258: The Mongols sack Baghdad. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustasim. End of the Abbasid rule. Fall of Baghdad, end of the
Abbasid caliphate. The Mongol II-Khans under Halaku establish their rule in Iran and Iraq with the capital at Maragah. Berek
Khan the Muslim chief of the Golden Horde protests against the treatment meted out to the Abbasid Caliph and withdraw his
Contingent from Baghdad.

1259: Abu Abdullah the Hafsid ruler declares himself as the Caliph and assumes the name of AI Mustamir.

1260: Battle of Ayn Jalut in Syria. The Mongols are defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt, and the spell of the invincibility of the
Mongols is broken. Baybars becomes the Mamluk Sultan.

1262: Death of Bahauddin Zikriya in Multan who is credited with the introduction of the Suhrawardi Sufi order in the IndoPakistan

1265: Death of Halaku. Death of Fariduddin Ganj Shakkar the Chishti saint of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.

1266: Death of Berek Khan the first ruler of the Golden Horde to be converted to Islam. The eighth crusade. The crusaders
invade Tunisia. Failure of the crusade.

1267: Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in Indonesia. Murtada seeks the help of the Christians,
and the Spaniards invade Morocco. The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco. Assassination of Murtada; accession
of Abu Dabbas.

1269: Abu Dabbas is overthrown by the Marinida, End of the Al Mohads. End of the rule of the AI Mohads in Morocco, the
Marinids come to power in Morocco under Abu Yaqub.

1270: Death of Mansa Wali the founder of the Muslim rule in M ali.

1272: Death of Muhammad I the founder of the state of Granada. Yaghmurason invades Morocco but meets a reverse at the

1273: Death of Jalaluddin Rumi.

1274: Death of Nasiruddin Tusi. The Marinids wrest Sijilmasa from the Zayenids. Ninth crusade under Edward I of England. The
crusade ends in fiasco and Edward returns to England.

1277: Death of Baybars.

1280: Battle of Hims.

1283: Death of Yaghmurasan. Accession of his son Othman.

1285: Tunisis splits in Tunis and Bougie.

1286: Death of Ghiasuddin Balban. Death of Abu Yusuf Yaqub. Bughra Khan declares his independence in Bengal under the
name of Nasiruddin.

1290: End of the slave dynasty Jalaluddin Khilji comes into power. Othman embarks on a career of conquest and by 1290 C.E.
most of the Central Maghreb is conquered by the Zayanids.

1291: Saadi.

1296: Alauddin Ghazan converted to Islam.

1299: Mongols invade Syria. The Marinids besiege Tlemsen the capital of the Zayanids.

[Part Two]