14th Century (1300-1399) C.E.
1301: In Bengal, Death of Ruknuddin the king of Bengal, succeeded by brother Shamsuddin Firuz.
1302: In Granada, Death of Muhammad II; succession of Muhammad III.
1304: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Ghazan, succession of his brother Khudabanda Ul Jaytu. In Algeria, Death of Othman, succession of his son Abu Zayan Muhammad.
1305: In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin Khilji conquers Rajputana.
1306: In the Chughills empire, Death of Dava, succession of his son Kunjuk.
1307: In the Marinids empire, Assassination of the Marinid Sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf; accession of Abu Thabit
1308: In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Kunjuk, power captured by Taliku. In Algeria, Death of Abu Zayan Muhammad, succession of his brother Abu Hamuw Musa. In the Marinids empire, Abu Thabit overthrown by Abu Rabeah Sulaiman.
1309: In the Chughills empire, Assassination of Taliku, accession of Kubak. In Granada, Muhammad III overthrown by his uncle Abul Juyush Nasr.
1310: In the Chughills empire, Kubak overthrown by his brother Isan Buga. In the Marinids empire, Abu Rabeah Sulaiman overthrown by Abu Said Othman. In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin conquers Deccan.
1312: In Tunisia, In Tunis Abul Baqa is overthrown by Al Lihiani.
1313: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Invasion of Syria, the Mongols repulsed. In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Toktu, accession of his nephew Uzbeg.
1314: In Kashmir, Rainchan an adventurer from Baltistan overthrows Sinha Deva the Raja of Kashmir. Rainchan is converted to Islam and adopts the name of Sadrud Din. In Granada, Abul Juyush overthrown by his nephew Abul Wahid Ismail.
1315: In Tunisia, War between Bougie and Tunis, Lihani defeated and killed. Abu Bakr becomes the ruler of Bougie and Tunis.
1316: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Khudabanda Ul Jaytu, succession of Abu Said. In the Khiljis empire, Death of Alauddin, accession of Shahabuddin Umar, usurpation of power by Malik Kafur, a Hindu convert.
1318: In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Malik Kafur, deposition of Shahabuddin Umar, accession of Qutbuddin Mubarak. In the Chughills empire, Isan Buga overthrown by Kubak.
1320: In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Qutbuddin Mubarak, usurpation of power by Khusro Khan a Hindu convert. Khusro Khan overthrown by Ghazi Malik. End of the rule of Khiljis. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr expelled from Tunis by Abu Imran. In the Tughluqs empire, Ghazi Malik founds the rule of the Tughluq dynasty.
1321: In the Chughills empire, Death of Kubak, succession of Hebbishsi who is overthrown by Dava Temur.
1322: In the Chughills empire, Dava Temur overthrown by Tarmashirin, who is converted to Islam. In Bengal, Death of Shamsuddin Firuz. The kingdom divided into two parts. Ghiasuddin Bahadur became the ruler of East Bengal with the capital at Sonargaon, Shahabuddin became the ruler of West Bengal with the capital at Lakhnauti.
1324: In Bengal, Shahabuddin dies and is succeeded by his brother Nasiruddin.
1325: In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghazi Malik (Ghiasuddin Tughluq); accession of his son Muhammad Tughluq. In Granada, Assassination of Abul Wahid Ismail, succession of his son Muhammad IV. Assassination of Muhammad IV. Accession of his brother Abul Hallaj Yusuf. In the Samudra Pasai empire, Death of Malik al Tahir I, accession of Malik al Tahir II. In Bengal, With the help of Ghiasuddin Tughluq, Nasiruddin over-throws. Ghiasuddin Bahadur and himself become's the ruler of United Bengal.
1326: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Othman, succession of Orkhan. Orkhan conquers Bursa and makes it his capital.
1327: In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks capture the city of Nicaea.
1329: In the Tughluqs empire, Muhammad Tughluq shifts the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Deccan.
1330: In the Chughills empire, Death of Tramashirin, succession of Changshahi. Amir Hussain establishes the rule of the Jalayar dynasty at Baghdad. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr overthrows Abu Imran and the state is again united, under him. In Bengal, Muhammad b Tughluq reverses the policy of his father and restores Ghiasuddin Bahadur to the throne of Sonargeon.
1331: In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Said Othman, sucession of Abul Hasan. In Bengal, Annexation of Bengal by the Tughluqs.
1335: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Abu Said, power captured by Arpa Koun. In the Chughills empire, Assassination of Changshahi, accession of Burun.
1336: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Arpa defeated and killed, succeeded by Musa. Birth of Amir Temur. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Amir Hussain, succession of Hasan Buzurg. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks annex the state of Karasi. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Sonargeon assassinated by armour bearer who captured power and declared his independence assuming the name of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah.
1337: In the Mongols II Khans empire, The rule of Musa overthrown, Muhammad becomes the Sultan. In the Sarbadaran empire, On the disintegration of the II-Khan rule, Abdur Razaq a military adventurer establishes an independent principality in Khurasan with the capital at Sabzwar. In the Muzaffarids empire, On the disintegration of the II Khan rule Mubarazud Din Muhammad established the rule of the Muzaffarid dynasty. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks capture the city of Nicomedia. In Algeria, Algeria is occupied by Marinids.
1338: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Muhammad overthrown, succession of Sati Beg. Sati Beg marries Sulaiman who becomes the co-ruler.
1339: In Kashmir, Death of Sadrud Din, throne captured by a Hindu Udyana Deva. In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Burun, accession of Isun Temur. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Lakhnauti-Qadr Khan assassinated and power is captured by the army commander-in-chief who declares his independence and assumes the title of Alauddin Ali Shah.
1340: In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids conquer Kirman. In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Isun Temur, accession of Muhammad.
1341: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Uzbeg, succession of his son Tini Beg.
1342: In the Golden Horde empire, Tini Beg overthrown by his brother Jani Beg.
1343: In the Chughills empire, Muhammad overthrown, power captured by Kazan. In Bengal, Ilyas an officer of Alauddin murders his patron and captures the throne of West Bengal.
1344: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Deposition of Sulaiman, succession of Anusherwan.
1345: In the Samudra Pasai empire, Death of Malik al Tahir II, accession of Tahir III. His rule lasted throughout the fourteenth
century. In Bengal, llyas captures E st Bengal and under him Bengal is again united. He establishes his capital at Gaur.
1346: In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Kazan, accession of Hayan Kuli. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Bakr, succession of his son Fadal. In Kashmir, Death of Udyana Deva, throne captured by Shah Mirza who assumed the name of Shah Mir, and rounded the rule of Shah Mir dynasty.
1347: The Marinids capture Tunisia. In the Bahmanids empire, Hasan Gangu declares his independence and establishes a state in Deccan with the capital at Gulbarga.
1349: In Kashmir, Death of Shah Mir, accession of his son Jamsbed. In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Said Othman recapture Algeria.
1350: In the Sarbadaran empire, Revolt against Abdur Razaq. Power captured by Amir Masud. In Tunisia, Deposition of Fadal, succession of his brother Abu Ishaq. In Kashmir, Jamshed overthrown by his step brother Alauddin Ali Sher.
1351: In the Marinids empire, Death of Abul Hasan, succession of Abu Inan. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Muhammad Tughluq accession of Firuz Shah Tughluq.
1352: In Algeria, The Marinids again capture Algeria. Abu Said Othman is taken captive and killed.
1353: End of the Mongol II Khan rule. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks acquire the fortress of Tympa on the European side of the Hollespoint. In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids conquer Shiraz and establish their capital there.
1354: In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids annex Isfahan. In Granada, Assassination of Abu Hallaj Yusuf, succession of his son Muhammad V.
1356: In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hasan Buzurg, succession of his son Owaia.
1357: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Jani Beg, succession of Kulpa.
1358: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Hasan Gangu, accession of his son Muhammad Shah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Mubarazuddin Muhammad; accession of Shah Shuja. In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Inan, succession of Abu Bakr Said. In Bengal, Death of Ilyas, succession of his son Sikandar Shah.
1359: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Orkhan, succession of Murad. In the Muzaffarids empire, Shah Shuja deposed by his brother Shah Mahmud. In Tunisia, Abul Abbas a nephew of Abu Ishaq revolts and establishes his rule in Bougie. In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Hamuw II recapture Algeria. In the Marinids empire, Abu Bakr Said overthrown by Abu Salim Ibrahim. In Granada, Muhammad V loses the throne in palace revolution, succeeded by Ismail.
1360: In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Mahmud. Shah Shuja recaptures power. In the Chughills empire, Power captured by Tughluq Temur. In Granada, Ismail overthrown by his brother-in-law Abu Said.
1361: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Murad conquers a part of Thrace and establishes his capital at Demolika in Thrace. In the Golden Horde empire, Kulpa overthrown by his brother Nauroz. In the Marinids empire, Abu Salim Ibrahim overthrown by Abu Umar. Abu Umar overthrown by Abu Zayyan.
1362: In the Golden Horde empire, State of anarchy. During 20 years as many as 14 rulers came to the throne and made their exit. In Granada, Abu Said overthrown by Muhammad V who comes to rule for the second time. In Kashmir, Death of Alauddin Ali Sher, succeeded by his brother Shahabuddin.
1365: In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks defeat the Christians at the battle of Matiza, the Byzantine ruler becomes a vassal of the Turks.
1366: In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Zayyan, succession of Abu Faris Abdul Aziz.
1369: Power captured by Amir Temur. End of the rule of the Chughills. Amir Temur captures power in Transoxiana. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Ishaq. Succession of his son Abu Baqa Khalid.
1370: In Tunisia, Abu Baqa overthrown by Abul Abbas under whom the state is reunited. In the Sarbadaran empire, Death of Amir Masud, succession of Muhammad Temur.
1371: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Invasion of Bulgaria, Bulgarian territory upto the Balkans annexed by the Turks.
1372: In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris, succession of Abu Muhammad.
1374: In the Marinids empire, Abu Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas.
1375: In the Sarbadaran empire, Deposition of Muhammad Temur, power captured by Shamsuddin. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Owais, succession by his son Hussain.
1376: In Kashmir, Death of Shahabuddin, succeeded by his brother Qutbuddin.
1377: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Shah, succeeded by his son Mujahid.
1378: In the Bahmanids empire, Mujahid assassinated, throne captured by his uncle Daud.
1379: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Bairam Khawaja found the independent principality of the Turkomans of the Black Sheep and established his capital at Van in Armenia. In the Bahmanids empire, Assassination of Daud; accession of Muhammad Khan.
1380: In the Golden Horde empire, Power is captured by Toktamish, a prince of the White Horde of Siberia. In Amir Temur's empire, Amir Temur crosses the Oxus and conquers Khurasan and Herat. Amir Temur invades Persia and subjugates the Muzaffarids and Mazandaran.
1381: In Amir Temur's empire, Annexation of Seestan, capture of Qandhar.
1384: In Amir Temur's empire, Conquest of Astrabad, Mazandaran, Rayy and Sultaniyah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Shuja, accession of his son Zainul Abdin. In the Marinids empire, Abul Abbas overthrown by Mustansir. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Bairam Khawaja, succession of Qara Muhammad.
1386: In Amir Temur's empire, Annexation of Azarbaijan, Georgea overrun. Subjugation of Gilan and Shirvan. Turkomans of the Black Sheep defeated. In the Marinids empire, Death of Mustansir, succession of Muhammad.
1387: In the Marinids empire, Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas who comes to power for the second time.
1388: In Algeria, Death of Abu Hamuw II, succession of Abu Tashfin. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Firuz Shah Tughluq, succeeded by his grandson Ghiasuddin Tughluq II.
1389: In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of the poet Hafiz Shirazi. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghiasuddin Tughluq II, accession: of Abu Bakr Tughluq Shah. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Muhammad. succession of Qara Yusuf.
1390: In the Tughluqs empire, Abu Bakr overthrow by Nasiruddin Tughluq. In Bengal, Death of Sikandar Shah, accession of his son Ghiasud. In the Burji Mamluks empire, The rule of the Burji Mamluks rounded by Saifuddin Barquq.
1391: In Amir Temur's empire, Annexation of Fars. In the Muzaffarids empire, Annexation of the Muzaffarids by Amir Temur. In Granada, Death of Muhammad V, succession of his son Abu Hallaj Yusuf II.
1392: In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hussain, succession of his son Ahmad. In Granada, Death of Abu Hallaj ; succession of Muhammad VI.
1393: Amir Temur defeats Tiktomish, the ruler of the Golden Horde. Capture of the Jalayar dominions by Amir Temur. In the Marinids empire, Death of Abul Abbas; succession of Abu Faris II.
1394: Amir Temur defeats the Duke of Moscow. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Nasiruddin Tugluq, accession of Alauddin Sikandar Shah. In Kashmir, Death of Qutbuddin. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Qara Othman established the rule of the White Sheep Turkomans in Diyarbekr.
1395: In the Golden Horde empire, Amir Temur defeated Toktamish and razes Serai to the ground. End of the rule of the Golden Horde. Annexation of Iraq by Amir Temur. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Sikandar Shah. Accession of Muhammad Shah.
1396: In the Amir Temur's empire, Destruction of Sarai, and of the rule of the Golden Horde. In the Sarbadaran empire, Principality annexed by Amir Temur.
1397: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Khan.
1398: In the Amir Temur's empire, Campaign in India. In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris II. In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of Amir Timur, Mahmud Shah escapes from the capital. In Morocco, Death of the Marinid Sultan Abu Faris II; succession of his son Abu Said Othman.
1399: In the Amir Temur's empire, Campaign in Iraq and Syria. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Barquq, succession of his son Nasiruddin in Faraj.
15th Century (1400-1499) C.E.
1400: In the Burji Mamluks empire, The Mamluks lost Syria which was occupied by Amir Timur.
1401: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Timur Qutluq, the ruler, installed by Amir Timur. accession of Shadi Beg.
1402: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Defeat of Bayazid at the battle of Ankara, taken captive Amir Timur.
1403: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Muhammad I, the son of Bayazid ascended the throne.
1405: In the Timurids empire, Death of Amir Timur, succession of his son Shah Rukh.
1407: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Shadi Beg, installation of Faulad Khan by the king maker Edigu.
1410: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Faulad Khan, installation of Timur.
1412: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Timur, installation of Jalaluddin. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Nasiruddin Faraj, succession of Al Muayyad.
1413: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Jalaluddin, installation of Karim Bardo.
1414: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Karim Bardo, installation of Kubak Khan.
1416: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Kubak Khan, installation of Jahar Balrawi. Deposition of Jahar Balrawi, installation of Chaighray.
1419: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Edigu, overthrow of Chaighray, power captured by Ulugh Muhammad.
1420: In the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad overthrown by Daulat Bairawi. 1420: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Yusuf; succession of his son Qara Iskandar. In Morocco, Assassination of Abu Said Othman; succession of his infant son Abdul Haq.
1421: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad I; accession of his son Murad II. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Al Muayyad, succession of Muzaffar Ahmad. Muzaffar Ahmad overthrown by Amir Saifuddin Tata, Death of Saifuddin Tata, succession of his son Muhammad. Muhammad overthrown by Amir Barsbay.
1424: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Daulat Bairawi, succession of Berk. In Algeria, The Halsida of Tunisia occupy
Algeria. This state of affairs continued throughout the fifteenth century.
1425: In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr, a prince of the house of Uzbeg declare his independence in the western part of Siberia,
1427: In the Golden Horde empire, Berk overthrown by Ulugh Muhammad who captured power for the second time.
1430: In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr occupies Khawarazm.
1434: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Deposition of Qara Iskandar; installation of his brother Jahan Shah. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Qara Othman, succession of his son Ali Beg. In Tunisia, Death of Abul Faris after a rule of forty years, succession of his son Abu Abdullah Muhammad.
1435: In Tunisia, Deposition of Abu Abdullah Muhammad, power captured by Abu Umar Othman.
1438: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Barsbay, accession of his minor son Jamaluddin Yusuf; Yusuf overthrown and power captured by the Chief Minister Saifuddin Gakmuk. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Ali Beg overthrown by his brother Hamza.
1439: In the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad withdrew from Sarai and found the principality of Qazan. Said Ahmad came to power in Sarai.
1440: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Hamza overthrown by Jahangir a son of Ali Beg.
1441: In the Golden Horde empire, Crimea seceded from Sarai.
1446: In the Timurids empire, Death of Shah Rukh, succession of Ulugh Beg. In the Ottoman Turks empire, Second battle of Kossova resulting in the victory of the Turks. Serbia annexed to Turkey and Bosnia became its vassal.
1447: In the Golden Horde empire, Astra Khan seceded from Sarai.
1449: In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr captures Farghana. In the Timurids empire, Death of Ulugh Beg, succession of Abdul
1450: In the Timurids empire, Assassination of Abdul Latif, accession of Abu Said.
1451: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Murad II; accession of his son Muhammad II.
1453: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Capture of Constantinople by the Turks. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Jahangir; accession of his son Uzun Hasan. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Gakmuk. succession of his son Fakhruddin Othman. Othman overthrown by the Mamluk General Saifuddin Inal.
1454: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Attack against Wallachia, Wallachia became a vassal state of Turkey.
1456: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Serbia.
1461: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Bosnia and Herzogovina. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Inal, succession of his son Shahabuddin Ahmad. Shahabuddin Ahmad overthrown by the Mamluk General Saifuddin Khushqadam.
1462: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Albania.
1465: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Said Ahmad, succession of his son Khan Ahmad. In Morocco, Assassination of Abdul Haq. End of the Marinid rule. Power snatched by Sharif Muhammad al Jati.
1467: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Jahan Shah, end of the rule of the Black Sheep Turkoman rule. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Jahan Shah of the Black Sheep attacked the White Sheep. Jahan Shah was defeated and the Black Sheep territories annexed by the White Sheep. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Khushqadam, accession of his son Saifuddin Yel Bey. Deposition of Yel Bey, power captured by the Mamluk General Temur Bugha.
1468: In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Abul Khayr, succession of his son Haidar Sultan. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Uzun Hasan defeated the Timurids at the battle of Qarabagh whereby the White Sheep became the masters of Persia and Khurasan. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Deposition of Femur Bugha, power captured by the Mamluk General Qait Bay.
1469: In the Timurids empire, Death of Abu Said, disintegration of the Timurid state. In Khurasan Hussain Baygara came to power and he ruled during the remaining years of the fifteenth century.
1472: In Morocco, Sharif Muhammad al Jati overthrown by the Wattisid chief Muhammad al Shaikh who establishes the rule of the Wattisid dynasty.
1473: In the Ottoman Turks empire, War against Persia; Persians defeated.
1475: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Crimea. War against Venice. Tukey became the master of the Aegean Sea.
1478: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Uzun Hasan, succession of his son Khalil.
1479: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Khalil overthrown by his uncle Yaqub.
1480: In the Golden Horde empire, Assassination of Khan Ahmad, succession of his son Said Ahmad II.
1481: In the Golden Horde empire, Said Ahmad I1 overthrown by his brother Murtada. In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad II, accession of Bayazid II.
1488: In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Haider Sultan, succession of his nephew Shaybani Khan. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Umar Othman after a rule of 52 years, succession of Abu Zikriya Yahya.
1489: In Tunisia, Abu Zikriya Yahya overthrown by Abul Mumin.
1490: In Tunisia, Abul Mumin overthrown, power recaptured by Abu Yahya.
1493: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Yaqub. accession of his son Bayangir.
1495: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Bayangir overthown by his cousin Rustam.
1496: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Abdication of Qait Bay, succession of his son Nasir Muhammad.
1497: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Rustam overthrown by Ahmad. Anarchy and fragmentation.
1498: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Deposition of Nasir Muhammad, power captured by Zahir Kanauh.
1499: In the Uzbegs empire, Shayhani Khan conquered Transoxiana. In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Murtada, succession of Said Ahmad III." In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks defeated the Venetian fleet in the battle of Lepanto.
16th Century (1500-1599) C.E.
1500: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Zahir Kanauh overthrown by Ashraf Gan Balat.
1501: Isamil I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia, and the Twelve-Imam Shi'ism becomes the state religion.
1507: The Portuguese under d'Albuquerque establish strongholds in the Persian Gulf.
1508: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, End of the White Sheep dynasty and the annexation of their territories by the Safawids.
1511: D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca from the Muslims.
1517: The Ottoman Sultan Selim Yavuz ("the Grim") defeats the Mamluks and conquers Egypt.
1520: The reign of Sulayman the Magnificent begins.
1526: Louis of Hungary dies at the Battle of Mohacs.
1526: The Battle of Panipat in India, and the Moghul conquest; Babur makes his capital at Delhi and Agra.
1528: The Ottomans take Buda in Hungary.
1529: Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna.
1550: The architect Sinan builds the Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul.
1550: The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Atjeh in Sumatra.
1550: Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas, and Borneo.
1556: The death of Sulayman the Magnificent.
1568: Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism) in Spain.
1571: The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto, and their dominance in the Mediterranean is brought to a close.
1578: The Battle of the Three Kings at Qasr al-Kabir in Morocco. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed.
1588: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I begins.
1591: Mustaili Ismailis split into Sulaymanis and Daudis.
17th Century (1600-1699) C.E.
1600: Sind annexed by the Mughals. End of the Arghun rule in Sind.
1601: Khandesh annexed by the Mughals.
1603: Battle of Urmiyah. Turks suffer defeat. Persia occupies Tabriz, Mesopotamia. Mosul and Diyarbekr. Death of Muhammad III, Sultan of Turkey, accession of Ahmad I. In Morocco al Shaikh died.
1604: In Indonesia death of Alauddin Rayat Shah, Sultan of Acheh, accession of Ali Rayat Shah III.
1605: Death of the Mughal emperor Akbar; accession of Jahangir.
1607: Annexation of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals.
1609: Annexation of Bidar by the Mughals
1611: Kuch Behar subjugated by the Mughals.
1612: Kamrup annexed by the Mughals.
1617: Death of Ahmad I, Sultan of Turkey, accession of Mustafa; Deposition of Mustafa: accession of Othman II.
1618: Tipperah annexed by the Mughals.: '
1620: In Turkey deposition of Mustafa, accession of Othman II.
1623: In Turkey Mustafa recaptured power.
1625: In Turkey deposition of Mustafa, accession of Murad IV.
1627: Death of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, accession of Shah Jahan.
1628: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I comes to an end.
1629: In Persia death of Shah Abbas; accession of grandson Safi.
1631: Death of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and the lady of Taj Mahal, Agra.
1637: Death of Iskandar Muda in Indonesia; accession of Iskandar II.
1640: Death of Otthman Sultan Murad IV. accession of his brother Ibrahim.
1641: Turks capture Azov. In Indonesia death of Iskandar II; accession of the Queen Tajul Alam.
1642: In Persia death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Abbas II.
1648: In Turkey Ibrahim deposed; accession of Muhammad IV.
1656: Muhammad Kuiprilli becomes the Grand Minister in Turkey.
1658: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, accession of Aurangzeb.
1661: Death of Muhammad Kuiprilli, accession of his son Ahmad Kuiprilli.
1667: Death of Shah Abbas II; accession of Shah Sulaiman.
1675: Execution of the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. In Indonesia death of the queen Tajul Alam, accession of the queen Nurul Alam.
1676: Death of the Grand Wazir of Turkey Ahmad Kuiprilli, succession by Kara Mustafa.
1678: In Indonesia death of the queen Nur ul Alam, accession of the queen Inayat Zakia.
1680: Death of Marhatta chieftain Shivaji.
1682: Assam annexed by the Mughals. Aurangzeb shifts the capital to Aurangabad in the Deccan.
1683: The Turks lift the siege of Vienna and retreat. Kara Mustafa the Grand Wazir executed for the failure of the expedition.
1686: Annexation of Bijapur by the Mughals.
1687: Golkunda annexed by the Mughals. Second battle of Mohads. Defeat of the Turks by Austria. Deposition of Muhammad IV. Accession of Sulaiman II.
1688: In Indonesia death of queen Inayat Zakia, accession of the queen Kamalah.
1690: Death of the Ottoman Sultan Sulaiman II, accession of Ahmad II.
1692: Death of the Turk Sultan Ahmad II, accession of Mustafa II.
1694: In Persia death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Hussain.
1699: In Indonesia death of Queen Kamalah.
18th Century (1700-1799) C.E.
1700: Murshid Quli Khan declares the independence of Bengal and establishes his capital at Murshidabad.
1703: Ahmad 11I becomes the Ottoman Sultan. Birth of Shah Wali Ullah. Birth of the religious reformer Muhammad b Abdul
1707: Death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, accession of his son Bahadur Shah.
1711: War between Turkey and Russia. Russia defeated at the battle of Pruth.
1712: Death of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah, accession of Jahandar Shah.
1713: Jahandar Shah overthrown by his nephew Farrukh Siyar.
1718: In the war against Austria, Turkey suffers defeat. By the treaty of Passarowich Turkey loses Hungary.
1719: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar Muhammad Shah ascends the throne. In Sind the Kalhoras came to power under Nur Muhammad Kalhora.
1722: Saadat Khan found the independent state of Oudh. Battle of Gulnabad between the Afghans and the Persians. The Persians were defeated and the Afghans under Shah Mahmud became the masters of a greater part of Persia. Shah Hussain taken captive, accession of Shah Tahmasp II.
1730: Zanzibar freed from Portugese rule and occupied by Oreart.
1747: Ahmad Shah Durrani established Afghan rule in Afghanistan.
1752: Death of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, writer of Sassi Pannu, Sohni Mahinwal and Umer Marvo.
1752: Ahmed Shah Durrani captured Punjab, Kashmir and Sind.
1761: Death of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi.
1761: Battle of Panipat. Ahmad Shah Durrani came to India at the invitation of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi and smashed rising Maratha power in the battle of Panipat.
1764: Conversion to Islam of Areadi Gaya. ruler of Futa Bandu State in West Sudan.
1773: Death of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
1783: End of Kalhora rule in Sind.
1797: Death of Muhammad Khan Qachar, king of Persia.
1797: Russia occupied Daghestan.
1799: Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharajah of Punjab defeating Afghans.
1799: Khoqand declared independent Islamic State.
19th Century (1800-1899) C.E.
1803: Shah Abdul Aziz ibn Saud assassinated by a Shia fanatic. Shah Shuja proclaimed as King of Afghanistan.
1805: Ibn Saud captured Madinah defeating the Turk garrison.
1804: Othman Dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Central Sudan.
1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Turks.
1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan.
1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria.
1811: Birth of Ali Muhammad Bab founder of Bab movement.
1811: British occupied Indonesia.
1812: Madina fell to Egyptians.
1813: Makkah and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis expelled from Hijaz.
1814: Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as Definitive Treaty.
1814: Death of Ibn Saud II.
1814: King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud.
1816: British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch.
1822: Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco.
1827: Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo- Netherland treaty in 1824.
1828: Russia declared war against Turkey.
1829: Treaty of Adrianople.
1830: French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria ending 313 years rule of Turks.
1831: Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail leaders of Jihad movement in India fell fighting the Sikhs in Balakot.
1832: Turks defeated in the battle of Konia by Egyptian forces.
1832: Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar.
1834: Abdul Qadir recognised as ruler of the area under his control by the French.
1839: Defeat of Turkey by the Egyptians in the battle of Nisibin.
1840: Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish Syria.
1840: British frees occupied Aden.
1841: State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria.
1842: Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French. crossed over to Morocco.
1842: Shah Shuja assassinated ending the Durrani rule in Afghanistan.
1847: Amir Abdul Qadir surrendred to France under the condition of safe conduct to a Muslim country of his choice but France violated its pledge and sent him as a captive to France.
1849: Death of Muhammad Ali pasha.
1850: Ali Muhammad Bab arrested and executed by Iranian government. Qurratul Ain Tabira, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of Babism also shot dead.
1852: Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napolean III. He settled in Turkey.
1855: Khiva annexed by Russia.
1857: British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years. Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon in Burma. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India.
1859: Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces and the Islamic State of Daghestan became a Russian province.
1860: Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain.
1861: Death of Sultan Abdul-Majid of Turkey.
1862: Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan..
1865: Khoqand State liquidated by Russia.
1869: Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt.
1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Turkey through a Firman.
1876: Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal and got involved in Egyptian affairs.
1878: Turkey handed over Cyprus to Britain.
1878: Adrianople fell to Russia.
1879: Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Egypt.
1879: Treaty of Berlin. Turkey lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe.
1881: France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy of France as a result of the treaty of Bardo.
1881: Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan.
1882: Egypt came under British military occupation.
1883: Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.
1885: Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his rule.
1885: Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartum.
1890: End of Banbara State.
1895: Afghanistan got Wakhan corridor by an understanding with Russia and British India making Afghan border touch China.
1895: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed prophethood.
1897: State of Bagirimi occupied by the French,
1899: Fall of Mahdi State occupied by the British and the Egyptians jointly.
20th Century (1900-1992) C.E.
1901: Ibn Saud (Abd al-Aziz) captures Riyad.
1901: French forces occupy Morocco.
1904: Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Conference of Algeciras.
1904: The Presian constitution is promoted.
1905: The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with it's main sphere of influence in Egypt.
1907: The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.
1912: The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in Indonesia.
1914: Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed.
1914: World War I.
1916: Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway.
1918: Armistice signed with Ottomans on October 30.
1918: World War I ends on November 11.
1918: Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.
1921: Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
1921: Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
1921: Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the "Republic of the Rif".
1922: Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Turkish Sultanate.
1924: The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.
1924: King Abd al-Aziz conquers Mecca and Medina, which leads to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz.
1925: Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.
1926: Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) assumes title of King of Najd and Hijaz.
1927: Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.
1928: Turkey is declared a secular state.
1928: Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood.
1932: Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.
1934: War between King Abd al-Aziz and Imam Yahya of the Yemen.
1934: Peace treaty of Ta'if.
1934: Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.
1935: Iran becomes the official name of Persia.
1936: Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine.
1939: World War II.
1941: British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran.
1943: Beginning of Zionist terrorist campaign in Palestine.
1945: End of World War II.
1946: Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.
1947: Creation of Pakistan from Muslim Majority area in India.
1948: Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Israel.
1949: Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated.
1951: Libya becomes independent.
1952: King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate.
1953: General Zahedi leads coup against Musaddeq, Shah returns to power.
1953: Death of King Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) of Saudi Arabia.
1953: The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's mosque in Medina.
1956: Morocco becomes independent.
1956: Tunisia becomes independent.
1957: The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes becomes president.
1957: Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins.
1962: Algeria becomes independent.
1962: Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.
1965: Malcom X is assassinated.
1968: The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed.
1969: King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi.
1973: King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown.
1975: Death of Elijah Mohammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America.
1975: Wallace Warith Deen Mohammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy renaming it American Muslim Mission.
1978: Imam Musa Sadr is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to Libya. He was the religious leader of the Lebanese Twelve-Imam Shi'ites. He promoted the resurgence of Shi'ites in Lebanon and set the foundation of Amal.
1979: The Shah leaves Iran on January 15, thus bringing the Pahlavi dynasty to an end.
1979: On 1 Muharram AH 1400/21 November, the first day of the 15th Islamic century, fanatics led by students of the Theological University of Medina attempt to promote one of their group as Mahdi and thus fulfill a certain prophetic Hadith: "A man of the people of Medina will go forth, fleeing to Mecca, and certain of the people of Mecca will come to him and will lead him forth against his will and swear fealty to him between the rukn (Black Stone corner of the Kabah) and the Maqam Ibrahim." They hold the Haram of Mecca against the army for two weeks. Sixty-three of the 300 fanatics are captured alive, the mosque is recovered, and the conspirators are all put to death.
1980: Beginning of the Iran-Iraq war.
1989: Iran-Iraq comes to an end with much loss of life.
1990: Military annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, under Ba'athist leader Saddam Hussain, is reversed in 1991 by a coalition of United States-led forces.