Terrorists attack the United States in an unprecedented and brutal manner on 11 September, killing thousands of innocent people, including the passengers and the crews of four aircraft.
Like everyone throughout our country, I am repulsed and angered by these attacks and believe that all appropriate steps must be taken to bring the perpetrators to justice. We must prevent any future attacks. That is the highest obligation of our federal, state and local governments. On this, we are united as a nation. Any nation, group or individual that fails to comprehend this or believes that we will tolerate such illegal and uncivilised attacks is hugely mistaken.
Recently, filled with grief and sorrow for those killed and injured and with anger at those who had done this, I confronted the solemn responsibility of voting to authorise the nation to go to war. Some believe this resolution was only symbolic, designed to show national resolve. But I could not ignore that it provided explicit authority, under the War Powers Resolution and the constitution, to go to war.
It was a blank cheque to the President to attack anyone involved in the September 11 events anywhere, in any country, without regard to our nation's long-term foreign policy, economic and national security interests, and without time limit.
In granting these overly broad powers, the Congress failed its responsibility to understand the dimensions of its declaration. I could not support such a grant of war-making authority to the President; it would put more innocent lives at risk.
The president has the constitutional authority to protect the nation from further attack and he has mobilised the armed forces to do just that. The Congress should have waited for the facts to be presented and then acted with fuller knowledge of the consequences of our action.
I have heard from thousands of my constituents in the wake of this vote. Many a majority have counselled restraint and caution, demanding that we ascertain the facts and ensure that violence does not beget violence. They understand the boundless consequences of proceeding hastily to war.
Others believe that I should have voted for the resolution either for symbolic or geopolitical reasons, or because they truly believe a military option is unavoidable. However, I am not convinced that voting for the resolution preserves and protects US interests.
We must develop our intelligence and bring those who did this to justice. We must mobilise and maintain an international coalition against terrorism.
Finally, we have a chance to demonstrate to the world that great powers can choose to fight on the fronts of their choosing, and that we can choose to avoid needless military action when other avenues to redress our rightful grievances and to protect our nation are available to us.
We must respond, but the character of that response will determine for ourselves and for our children the world that they will inherit. I do not dispute the President's intent to rid the world of terrorism, but we have many means to reach that goal, and measures that spawn further acts of terror or that do not address the sources of hatred do not increase our security.
Colin Powell, the Secretary of State, himself eloquently pointed out the many ways to get at the root of this problem... economic, diplomatic, legal and political, as well as military. A rush to launch precipitous military attacks runs too great a risk that more innocent men, women and children will be killed. I could not vote for a resolution that I believe will lead to such an outcome.
Barbara Lee (Democrat California) was the only member of the House of Representatives to vote last week against authorising the use of military force.